Animal welfare | Wikipedia audio article


Animal welfare is the well-being of nonhuman
animals. The standards of “good” animal welfare vary
considerably between different contexts. These standards are under constant review
and are debated, created and revised by animal welfare groups, legislators and academics
worldwide. Animal welfare science uses various measures,
such as longevity, disease, immunosuppression, behavior, physiology, and reproduction, although
there is debate about which of these indicators provide the best information. Respect for animal welfare is often based
on the belief that nonhuman animals are sentient and that consideration should be given to
their well-being or suffering, especially when they are under the care of humans. These concerns can include how animals are
slaughtered for food, how they are used in scientific research, how they are kept (as
pets, in zoos, farms, circuses, etc.), and how human activities affect the welfare and
survival of wild species. There are two forms of criticism of the concept
of animal welfare, coming from diametrically opposite positions. One view, held by some thinkers in history,
holds that humans have no duties of any kind to animals. The other view is based on the animal rights
position that animals should not be regarded as property and any use of animals by humans
is unacceptable. Accordingly, some animal rights proponents
argue that the perception of better animal welfare facilitates continued and increased
exploitation of animals. Some authorities therefore treat animal welfare
and animal rights as two opposing positions. Others see animal welfare gains as incremental
steps towards animal rights. The predominant view of modern neuroscientists,
notwithstanding philosophical problems with the definition of consciousness even in humans,
is that consciousness exists in nonhuman animals. However, some still maintain that consciousness
is a philosophical question that may never be scientifically resolved.==History, principles and practice==
Early legislation in the Western world on behalf of animals includes the Ireland Parliament
(Thomas Wentworth) “An Act against Plowing by the Tayle, and pulling the Wooll off living
Sheep”, 1635, and the Massachusetts Colony (Nathaniel Ward) “Off the Bruite Creatures”
Liberty 92 and 93 in the “Massachusetts Body of Liberties” of 1641.Since 1822, when Irish
MP Richard Martin brought the “Cruel Treatment of Cattle Act 1822” through Parliament offering
protection from cruelty to cattle, horses, and sheep, an animal welfare movement has
been active in England. Martin was among the founders of the world’s
first animal welfare organization, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals,
or SPCA, in 1824. In 1840, Queen Victoria gave the society her
blessing, and it became the RSPCA. The society used members’ donations to employ
a growing network of inspectors, whose job was to identify abusers, gather evidence,
and report them to the authorities. In 1837, the German minister Albert Knapp
founded the first German animal welfare society.One of the first national laws to protect animals
was the UK “Cruelty to Animals Act 1835” followed by the “Protection of Animals Act 1911”. In the US it was many years until there was
a national law to protect animals—the “Animal Welfare Act of 1966″—although there were
a number of states that passed anti-cruelty laws between 1828 and 1898. In India, animals are protected by the “Prevention
of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960”. Significant progress in animal welfare did
not take place until the late 20th century. In 1965, the UK government commissioned an
investigation—led by Professor Roger Brambell—into the welfare of intensively farmed animals,
partly in response to concerns raised in Ruth Harrison’s 1964 book, Animal Machines. On the basis of Professor Brambell’s report,
the UK government set up the Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Committee in 1967, which became the
Farm Animal Welfare Council in 1979. The committee’s first guidelines recommended
that animals require the freedoms to “stand up, lie down, turn around, groom themselves
and stretch their limbs.” The guidelines have since been elaborated
upon to become known as the Five Freedoms.In the UK, the “Animal Welfare Act 2006” consolidated
many different forms of animal welfare legislation. A number of animal welfare organisations are
campaigning to achieve a Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare (UDAW) at the United Nations. In principle, the Universal Declaration would
call on the United Nations to recognise animals as sentient beings, capable of experiencing
pain and suffering, and to recognise that animal welfare is an issue of importance as
part of the social development of nations worldwide. The campaign to achieve the UDAW is being
co-ordinated by World Animal Protection, with a core working group including Compassion
in World Farming, the RSPCA, and the Humane Society International (the international branch
of HSUS).===Animal welfare science===Animal welfare science is an emerging field
that seeks to answer questions raised by the keeping and use of animals, such as whether
hens are frustrated when confined in cages, whether the psychological well-being of animals
in laboratories can be maintained, and whether zoo animals are stressed by the transport
required for international conservation. Ireland leads research into farm animal welfare
with the recently published Research Report on Farm Animal Welfare.==Animal welfare issues==
Animal testing Abandoned pets
Behavioral enrichment Blood sport
Cruelty to animals Feral cat
Hunting Overpopulation in companion animals
Overview of discretionary invasive procedures on animals
Poaching Puppy mills
Whaling===
Farm animals===A major concern for the welfare of farm animals
is factory farming in which large numbers of animals are reared in confinement at high
stocking densities. Issues include the limited opportunities for
natural behaviors, for example, in battery cages, veal and gestation crates, instead
producing abnormal behaviors such as tail-biting, cannibalism, and feather pecking, and routine
invasive procedures such as beak trimming, castration, and ear notching. More extensive methods of farming, e.g. free
range, can also raise welfare concerns such as the mulesing of sheep, predation of stock
by wild animals, and biosecurity. Farm animals are artificially selected for
production parameters which sometimes impinge on the animals’ welfare. For example, broiler chickens are bred to
be very large to produce the greatest quantity of meat per animal. Broilers bred for fast growth have a high
incidence of leg deformities because the large breast muscles cause distortions of the developing
legs and pelvis, and the birds cannot support their increased body weight. As a consequence, they frequently become lame
or suffer from broken legs. The increased body weight also puts a strain
on their hearts and lungs, and ascites often develops. In the UK alone, up to 20 million broilers
each year die from the stress of catching and transport before reaching the slaughterhouse.Another
concern about the welfare of farm animals is the method of slaughter, especially ritual
slaughter. While the killing of animals need not necessarily
involve suffering, the general public considers that killing an animal reduces its welfare. This leads to further concerns about premature
slaughtering such as chick culling by the laying hen industry, in which males are slaughtered
immediately after hatching because they are superfluous; this policy occurs in other farm
animal industries such as the production of goat and cattle milk, raising the same concerns.===Cetaceans===Captive cetaceans are kept for display, research
and naval operations. To enhance their welfare, humans feed them
fish which are dead, but are disease-free, protect them from predators and injury, monitor
their health, and provide activities for behavioral enrichment. Some are kept in lagoons with natural soil
and vegetated sides. Most are in concrete tanks which are easy
to clean, but echo their natural sounds back to them. They cannot develop their own social groups,
and related cetaceans are typically separated for display and breeding. Military dolphins used in naval operations
swim free during operations and training, and return to pens otherwise. Captive cetaceans are trained to present themselves
for blood samples, health exams and noninvasive breath samples above their blow holes. Staff can monitor the captives afterwards
for signs of infection from the procedure. Research on wild cetaceans leaves them free
to roam and make sounds in their natural habitat, eat live fish, face predators and injury,
and form social groups voluntarily. However boat engines of researchers, whale
watchers and others add substantial noise to their natural environment, reducing their
ability to echolocate and communicate. Electric engines are far quieter, but are
not widely used for either research or whale watching, even for maintaining position, which
does not require much power. Vancouver Port offers discounts for ships
with quiet propeller and hull designs. Other areas have reduced speeds. Boat engines also have unshielded propellers,
which cause serious injuries to cetaceans who come close to the propeller. The US Coast Guard has proposed rules on propeller
guards to protect human swimmers, but has not adopted any rules. The US Navy uses propeller guards to protect
manatees in Georgia. Ducted propellers provide more efficient drive
at speeds up to 10 knots, and protect animals beneath and beside them, but need grilles
to prevent injuries to animals drawn into the duct. Attaching satellite trackers and obtaining
biopsies to measure pollution loads and DNA involve either capture and release, or shooting
the cetaceans from a distance with dart guns. A cetacean was killed by a fungal infection
after being darted, due to either an incompletely sterilized dart or an infection from the ocean
entering the wound caused by the dart. Researchers on wild cetaceans have not yet
been able to use drones to capture noninvasive breath samples. Other harms to wild cetaceans include commercial
whaling, aboriginal whaling, drift netting, ship collisions, water pollution, noise from
sonar and reflection seismology, predators, loss of prey, disease. Efforts to enhance the life of wild cetaceans,
besides reducing those harms, include offering human music. Canadian rules do not forbid playing quiet
music, though they forbid “noise that may resemble whale songs or calls, under water”.===Wild animal welfare===
In addition to cetaceans, the welfare of other wild animals has also been studied, though
to a lesser extent than that of animals in farms. Research in wild animal welfare has two focuses:
the welfare of wild animals kept in captivity and the welfare of animals living in the wild. The former has addressed the situation of
animals kept both for human use, as in zoos or circuses, or in rehabilitation centers. The latter has examined how the welfare of
non-domesticated animals living in wild or urban areas can be affected by humans or for
natural factors causing wild animal suffering. Some of these views have promoted carrying
out conservation efforts in ways that respect the welfare of wild animals, while others
have been arguing in favor of carrying measures improving the welfare of animals for its own
sake regardless of whether there are any conservation issues involved at all.==Legislation=====European Union===
The European Commission’s activities in this area start with the recognition that animals
are sentient beings. The general aim is to ensure that animals
do not endure avoidable pain or suffering, and obliges the owner/keeper of animals to
respect minimum welfare requirements. European Union legislation regarding farm
animal welfare is regularly re-drafted according to science-based evidence and cultural views. For example, in 2009, legislation was passed
which aimed to reduce animal suffering during slaughter and on January 1, 2012, the European
Union Council Directive 1999/74/EC came into act, which means that conventional battery
cages for laying hens are now banned across the Union.====United Kingdom====
The Animal Welfare Act 2006 makes owners and keepers responsible for ensuring that the
welfare needs of their animals are met. These include the need: for a suitable environment
(place to live), for a suitable diet, to exhibit normal behavior patterns, to be housed with,
or apart from, other animals (if applicable), and to be protected from pain, injury, suffering
and disease. Anyone who is cruel to an animal, or does
not provide for its welfare needs, may be banned from owning animals, fined up to £20,000
and/or sent to prison for a maximum of six months.In the UK, the welfare of research
animals being used for “regulated procedures” was historically protected by the Animals
(Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 (ASPA) which is administrated by the Home Office. The Act defines “regulated procedures” as
animal experiments that could potentially cause “pain, suffering, distress or lasting
harm” to “protected animals”. Initially, “protected animals” encompassed
all living vertebrates other than humans, but, in 1993, an amendment added a single
invertebrate species, the common octopus.Primates, cats, dogs, and horses have additional protection
over other vertebrates under the Act. Revised legislation came into force in January
2013. This has been expanded to protect “…all
living vertebrates, other than man, and any living cephalopod. Fish and amphibia are protected once they
can feed independently and cephalopods at the point when they hatch. Embryonic and foetal forms of mammals, birds
and reptiles are protected during the last third of their gestation or incubation period.” The definition of regulated procedures was
also expanded: “A procedure is regulated if it is carried out on a protected animal and
may cause that animal a level of pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm equivalent to, or
higher than, that caused by inserting a hypodermic needle according to good veterinary practice.” It also includes modifying the genes of a
protected animal if this causes the animal pain, suffering, distress, or lasting harm. The ASPA also considers other issues such
as animal sources, housing conditions, identification methods, and the humane killing of animals.This
legislation is widely regarded as the strictest in the world. Those applying for a license must explain
why such research cannot be done through non-animal methods. The project must also pass an ethical review
panel which aims to decide if the potential benefits outweigh any suffering for the animals
involved.===United States===
In the United States, a federal law called the Humane Slaughter Act was designed to decrease
suffering of livestock during slaughter.The Georgia Animal Protection Act of 1986 was
a state law enacted in response to the inhumane treatment of companion animals by a pet store
chain in Atlanta. The Act provided for the licensing and regulation
of pet shops, stables, kennels, and animal shelters, and established, for the first time,
minimum standards of care. Additional provisions, called the Humane Euthanasia
Act, were added in 1990, and then further expanded and strengthened with the Animal
Protection Act of 2000.In 2002, voters passed (by a margin of 55% for and 45% against) Amendment
10 to the Florida Constitution banning the confinement of pregnant pigs in gestation
crates. In 2006, Arizona voters passed Proposition
204 with 62% support; the legislation prohibits the confinement of calves in veal crates and
breeding sows in gestation crates. In 2007, the Governor of Oregon signed legislation
prohibiting the confinement of pigs in gestation crates and in 2008, the Governor of Colorado
signed legislation that phased out both gestation crates and veal crates. Also during 2008, California passed Proposition
2, known as the “Prevention of Farm Animal Cruelty Act”, which orders new space requirements
for farm animals starting in 2015. In the US, every institution that uses vertebrate
animals for federally funded laboratory research must have an Institutional Animal Care and
Use Committee (IACUC). Each local IACUC reviews research protocols
and conducts evaluations of the institution’s animal care and use which includes the results
of inspections of facilities that are required by law. The IACUC committee must assess the steps
taken to “enhance animal well-being” before research can take place. This includes research on farm animals.According
to the National Institutes of Health Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, researchers
must try to minimize distress in animals whenever possible: “Animals used in research and testing
may experience pain from induced diseases, procedures, and toxicity. The Public Health Service (PHS) Policy and
Animal Welfare Regulations (AWRs) state that procedures that cause more than momentary
or slight pain or distress should be performed with appropriate sedation, analgesia, or anesthesia.However,
research and testing studies sometimes involve pain that cannot be relieved with such agents
because they would interfere with the scientific objectives of the study. Accordingly, federal regulations require that
IACUCs determine that discomfort to animals will be limited to that which is unavoidable
for the conduct of scientifically valuable research, and that unrelieved pain and distress
will only continue for the duration necessary to accomplish the scientific objectives. The PHS Policy and AWRs further state that
animals that would otherwise suffer severe or chronic pain and distress that cannot be
relieved should be painlessly killed at the end of the procedure, or if appropriate, during
the procedure.”The National Research Council’s Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
also serves as a guide to improve welfare for animals used in research in the US. The Federation of Animal Science Societies’
Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching is a resource
addressing welfare concerns in farm animal research. Laboratory animals in the US are also protected
under the Animal Welfare Act. The United States Department of Agriculture
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) enforces the Animal Welfare Act. APHIS inspects animal research facilities
regularly and reports are published online.According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA),
the total number of animals used in the U.S. in 2005 was almost 1.2 million, but this does
not include rats, mice, and birds which are not covered by welfare legislation but make
up approximately 90% of research animals.==Approaches and definitions==
There are many different approaches to describing and defining animal welfare. Positive conditions – Providing good animal
welfare is sometimes defined by a list of positive conditions which should be provided
to the animal. This approach is taken by the Five Freedoms
and the three principles of Professor John Webster. The Five Freedoms are: Freedom from thirst and hunger – by ready
access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigour
Freedom from discomfort – by providing an appropriate environment including shelter
and a comfortable resting area Freedom from pain, injury, and disease – by
prevention or rapid diagnosis and treatment Freedom to express most normal behavior – by
providing sufficient space, proper facilities, and company of the animal’s own kind
Freedom from fear and distress – by ensuring conditions and treatment which avoid mental
sufferingJohn Webster defines animal welfare by advocating three positive conditions: Living
a natural life, being fit and healthy, and being happy.High production – In the past,
many have seen farm animal welfare chiefly in terms of whether the animal is producing
well. The argument is that an animal in poor welfare
would not be producing well, however, many farmed animals will remain highly productive
despite being in conditions where good welfare is almost certainly compromised, e.g., layer
hens in battery cages. Emotion in animals – Others in the field,
such as Professor Ian Duncan and Professor Marian Dawkins, focus more on the feelings
of the animal. This approach indicates the belief that animals
should be considered as sentient beings. Duncan wrote, “Animal welfare is to do with
the feelings experienced by animals: the absence of strong negative feelings, usually called
suffering, and (probably) the presence of positive feelings, usually called pleasure. In any assessment of welfare, it is these
feelings that should be assessed.” Dawkins wrote, “Let us not mince words: Animal
welfare involves the subjective feelings of animals.”Welfare biology – Yew-Kwang Ng
defines animal welfare in terms of welfare economics: “Welfare biology is the study of
living things and their environment with respect to their welfare (defined as net happiness,
or enjoyment minus suffering). Despite difficulties of ascertaining and measuring
welfare and relevancy to normative issues, welfare biology is a positive science.”Dictionary
definition – In the Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, animal welfare is defined
as “the avoidance of abuse and exploitation of animals by humans by maintaining appropriate
standards of accommodation, feeding and general care, the prevention and treatment of disease
and the assurance of freedom from harassment, and unnecessary discomfort and pain.”American
Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) has defined animal welfare as: “An animal is in
a good state of welfare if (as indicated by scientific evidence) it is healthy, comfortable,
well nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and if it is not suffering from
unpleasant states such as pain, fear, and distress.” They have offered the following eight principles
for developing and evaluating animal welfare policies. The responsible use of animals for human purposes,
such as companionship, food, fiber, recreation, work, education, exhibition, and research
conducted for the benefit of both humans and animals, is consistent with the Veterinarian’s
Oath. Decisions regarding animal care, use, and
welfare shall be made by balancing scientific knowledge and professional judgment with consideration
of ethical and societal values. Animals must be provided water, food, proper
handling, health care, and an environment appropriate to their care and use, with thoughtful
consideration for their species-typical biology and behavior. Animals should be cared for in ways that minimize
fear, pain, stress, and suffering. Procedures related to animal housing, management,
care, and use should be continuously evaluated, and when indicated, refined or replaced. Conservation and management of animal populations
should be humane, socially responsible, and scientifically prudent. Animals shall be treated with respect and
dignity throughout their lives and, when necessary, provided a humane death. The veterinary profession shall continually
strive to improve animal health and welfare through scientific research, education, collaboration,
advocacy, and the development of legislation and regulations.Terrestrial Animal Health
Code of World Organisation for Animal Health defines animal welfare as “how an animal is
coping with the conditions in which it lives. An animal is in a good state of welfare if
(as indicated by scientific evidence) it is healthy, comfortable, well nourished, safe,
able to express innate behaviour, and if it is not suffering from unpleasant states such
as pain, fear, and distress. Good animal welfare requires disease prevention
and veterinary treatment, appropriate shelter, management, nutrition, humane handling and
humane slaughter/killing. Animal welfare refers to the state of the
animal; the treatment that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care,
animal husbandry, and humane treatment.”Coping – Professor Donald Broom defines the welfare
of an animal as “Its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes how much it is having
to do to cope, the extent to which it is succeeding in or failing to cope, and its associated
feelings.” He states that “welfare will vary over a continuum
from very good to very poor and studies of welfare will be most effective if a wide range
of measures is used.” John Webster criticized this definition for
making “no attempt to say what constitutes good or bad welfare.”==Attitudes==
Animal welfare often refers to a utilitarian attitude towards the well-being of nonhuman
animals. It believes the animals can be exploited if
the animal suffering and the costs of use is less than the benefits to humans. This attitude is also known simply as welfarism. An example of welfarist thought is Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall’s
meat manifesto. Point three of eight is: Think about the animals that the meat you
eat comes from. Are you at all concerned about how they have
been treated? Have they lived well? Have they been fed on safe, appropriate foods? Have they been cared for by someone who respects
them and enjoys contact with them? Would you like to be sure of that? Perhaps it’s time to find out a bit more about
where the meat you eat comes from. Or to buy from a source that reassures you
about these points. Robert Garner describes the welfarist position
as the most widely held in modern society. He states that one of the best attempts to
clarify this position is given by Robert Nozick: Consider the following (too minimal) position
about the treatment of animals. So that we can easily refer to it, let us
label this position “utilitarianism for animals, Kantianism for people.” It says: (1) maximize the total happiness
of all living beings; (2) place stringent side constraints on what one may do to human
beings. Human beings may not be used or sacrificed
for the benefit of others; animals may be used or sacrificed for the benefit of other
people or animals only if those benefits are greater than the loss inflicted. Welfarism is often contrasted with the animal
rights and animal liberation positions, which hold that animals should not be used by humans
and should not be regarded as human property. However, it has been argued that both welfarism
and animal liberation only make sense if it is assumed that animals have “subjective welfare”.===New welfarism===
New welfarism was coined by Gary L. Francione in 1996. It is a view that the best way to prevent
animal suffering is to abolish the causes of animal suffering, but advancing animal
welfare is a goal to pursue in the short term. Thus, for instance, new welfarists want to
phase out fur farms and animal experiments but in the short-term they try to improve
conditions for the animals in these systems, so they lobby to make cages less constrictive
and to reduce the numbers of animals used in laboratories.Within the context of animal
research, many scientific organisations believe that improved animal welfare will provide
improved scientific outcomes. If an animal in a laboratory is suffering
stress or pain it could negatively affect the results of the research.Increased affluence
in many regions for the past few decades afforded consumers the disposable income to purchase
products from high welfare systems. The adaptation of more economically efficient
farming systems in these regions were at the expense of animal welfare and to the financial
benefit of consumers, both of which were factors in driving the demand for higher welfare for
farm animals. A 2006 survey concluded that a majority (63%)
of EU citizens “show some willingness to change their usual place of shopping in order to
be able to purchase more animal welfare-friendly products.”The volume of scientific research
on animal welfare has also increased significantly in some countries.==Criticisms=====
Denial of duties to animals===Some individuals in history have, at least
in principle, rejected the view that humans have duties of any kind to animals. Augustine of Hippo seemed to take such a position
in his writings against those he saw as heretics: “For we see and hear by their cries that animals
die with pain, although man disregards this in a beast, with which, as not having a rational
soul, we have no community of rights.”===Animal rights===Animal rights advocates, such as Gary L. Francione
and Tom Regan, argue that the animal welfare position (advocating for the betterment of
the condition of animals, but without abolishing animal use) is inconsistent in logic and ethically
unacceptable. However, there are some animal right groups,
such as PETA, which support animal welfare measures in the short term to alleviate animal
suffering until all animal use is ended.According to PETA’s Ingrid Newkirk in an interview with
Wikinews, there are two issues in animal welfare and animal rights. “If I only could have one thing, it would
be to end suffering”, said Newkirk. “If you could take things from animals and
kill animals all day long without causing them suffering, then I would take it… Everybody should be able to agree that animals
should not suffer if you kill them or steal from them by taking the fur off their backs
or take their eggs, whatever. But you shouldn’t put them through torture
to do that.”Abolitionism holds that focusing on animal welfare not only fails to challenge
animal suffering, but may actually prolong it by making the exercise of property rights
over animals appear less unattractive. The abolitionists’ objective is to secure
a moral and legal paradigm shift, whereby animals are no longer regarded as property. In recent years documentaries such as watchdominion.com
have been produced, exposing the suffering occurring in animal agriculture facilities
that are marketed as having high welfare standards.==Animal welfare organizations=====Global===World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE):
The intergovernmental organisation responsible for improving animal health worldwide. The OIE has been established “for the purpose
of projects of international public utility relating to the control of animal diseases,
including those affecting humans and the promotion of animal welfare and animal production food
safety.”World Animal Protection: Protects animals across the globe. World Animal Protection’s objectives include
helping people understand the critical importance of good animal welfare, encouraging nations
to commit to animal-friendly practices, and building the scientific case for the better
treatment of animals. They are global in a sense that they have
consultative status at the Council of Europe and collaborate with national governments,
the United Nations, the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Organization for
Animal Health.===Non-government organizations===
Canadian Council on Animal Care: The national organization responsible for overseeing the
care and use of animals involved in Canadian Science.Canadian Federation of Humane Societies
(CFHS): The only national organization representing humane societies and SPCAs in Canada. They provide leadership on animal welfare
issues and spread the message across Canada.The Canadian Veterinary Medical Association: Brings
in veterinary involvement to animal welfare. Their objective is to share this concern of
animals with all members of the profession, with the general public, with government at
all levels, and with other organizations such as the CFHS, which have similar concerns.Compassion
in World Farming: Founded over 40 years ago in 1967 by a British farmer who became horrified
by the development of modern, intensive factory farming. “Today we campaign peacefully to end all cruel
factory farming practices. We believe that the biggest cause of cruelty
on the planet deserves a focused, specialised approach – so we only work on farm animal
welfare.”The Movement for Compassionate Living: Exists to-
“Promote simple vegan living and self-reliance as a remedy against the exploitation of humans,
animals and the Earth. Promote the use of trees and vegan-organic
farming to meet the needs of society for food and natural resources. Promote a land-based society where as much
of our food and resources as possible are produced locally.”National Animal Interest
Alliance: An animal welfare organization in the United States founded in 1991 promotes
the welfare of animals, strengthens the human-animal bond, and safeguards the rights of responsible
animal owners, enthusiasts and professionals through research, public information and sound
public policy. They host an online library of information
about various animal-related subjects serving as a resource for groups and individuals dedicated
to responsible animal care and well-being. National Farm Animal Care Council: Their objectives
are to facilitate collaboration among members with respect to farm animal care issues in
Canada, to facilitate information sharing and communication, and to monitor trends and
initiatives in both the domestic and international market place.National Office of Animal Health:
A British organisation that represents its members drawn from the animal medicines industry. Ontario Society for the Prevention of Cruelty
to Animals: A registered charity comprising over 50 communities.Royal Society for the
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals: A well-known animal welfare charity in England and Wales,
founded in 1824. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare:
A UK registered charity, established in 1926, that works to develop and promote improvements
in the welfare of all animals through scientific and educational activity worldwide.==Links to animal welfare and rights by country
==Animal welfare and rights in Brazil
Animal welfare and rights in China Animal rights in Colombia
Animal welfare in Egypt Animal welfare and rights in India
Animal welfare and rights in Israel Animal welfare and rights in Japan
Animal welfare and rights in Malaysia Animal welfare in Nazi Germany
Animal welfare in New Zealand Animal welfare and rights in South Korea
Animal welfare in Thailand Animal welfare in the United Kingdom
Animal welfare in the United States==See also

Daniel Yohans

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